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ad it up
Teacher Resources
A Closer Look
What is AD IT UP?

AD IT UP is an interactive web-based program that empowers students by teaching them to think critically about tobacco advertising using the core concepts of media literacy. Two cartoon commentators guide the students through the interactive modules and activities, which are the focus of the AD IT UP curriculum. The modules are organized around words that prompt specific media literacy questions. These words together form the AD IT UP mnemonic. Thus the critical thinking process learned through completing the AD IT UP curriculum is transferable for students to apply broadly to any media messages that they might encounter.

Why smoking as a target issue?

You may be thinking, "Hey! Smoking gets enough press. After all, who doesn't know smoking is bad for you?" Well, the truth is, it's far more of a problem than even most teachers, administrators, and other professionals realize. Consider that:
  • In the US, smoking is the top cause of death, killing more than AIDS, homicide, suicide, fires, alcohol, and illegal drugs combined and then doubled.
  • Every year, 40,000 non-smoking Americans die from other peoples' cigarettes. That's more people than those who die from AIDS and homicide combined.
  • On September 11, 2001, almost 3000 people were killed in New York City, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania from acts of terrorism. That number of people is killed in the United States every 2 and a-half days from smoking.
  • Some 300,000 people are dead or missing because of the Asian tsunami disaster in 2004-2005, which was called the worst natural disaster in history. More than that many people die worldwide from smoking every single month.
  • By 2050, about 10,000,000 people will be killed worldwide each year from smoking. That is more people than in the entire Dominican Republic or Sweden — both medium-sized countries — being killed by smoking each year.
Even though we seem to know a lot about smoking, in other words, it is still by far our biggest public health problem in the 21st century.

Why 9th Grade Health Class?

People who will later die from smoking usually start when they are young. In fact, about 80% of addicted smokers began when they were less than 18 years of age. That's why AD IT UP targets young people in school, hopefully before they begin smoking and get addicted. This particular program focuses on 9th graders because younger students in the first half of high school are particularly at risk for starting or accelerating cigarette use. Though the AD IT UP program can be used by students ranging from 7th grade through the 12th grade, we have observed that students in 9th grade and up are most comfortable with and capable of maximizing the learning outcome from the materials presented in the AD IT UP curriculum.

How is AD IT UP different from the other anti-smoking educational programs?

Traditional intervention programs, such as D.A.R.E. and No Tobacco, which are primarily designed to deliver a strong message of "just say no" to captive in-person school audiences, have not been successful. It is suspected that teenagers, particularly rebellious teenagers, will immediately want to try anything that an authority figure explicitly tells them not to do. At the same time studies have shown that adolescents are strongly influenced by the media. The large majority of smoking related media is created by the cigarette industry and thus overwhelmingly exhibit cigarette smoking as an attractive and desirable activity.

AD IT UP, which aims to increase youths' smoking-related media literacy, specifically does not tell them what to do. Instead, it encourages them to think independently and critically about the media messages they receive. Furthermore, youth educational exposure to smoking related media literacy has been shown to be inversely associated with incidence and future smoking in young people. Therefore media literacy education not only buffers the corporate media's influence but also decrease smoking tendency and smoking behavior in the long term.

Pilot AD IT UP programs have been conducted in-person, by AD IT UP instructors, and have proven to be successful at improving media literacy and reducing intention to smoke among high-risk groups. But in-person programs suffer from a number of limitations that prevents general implementation, including high cost, lack of resources to train personnel, and barriers to standardization. Thus this computer-based AD IT UP program was developed to ensure sustainability and equal program implementation fidelity to the widest student population possible.

What is media literacy?

Most experts define media literacy as "the ability of an individual to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce media in a number of forms." Although there are many theoretical models for media literacy, one particular model is particularly helpful when applying media literacy to health issues. This model divides media literacy into three "domains" and six "core concepts" (Table 1). In order for a student to be truly media literate, then, he or she should be facile and comfortable with each of these core concepts.

Table 1: The 3 Domains and 6 Core Concepts of Media Literacy
Core Concept
Authors & Audiences
AA1: Authors generally create media messages for money and/or power
AA2: Authors target specific audiences
Messages & Meanings
MM1: Messages convey values/ideas/feelings
MM2: Different people interpret media messages differently
MM3: Multiple production techniques are used
MM4: Media production techniques are successful at changing attitudes and behaviors
Representation & Reality
RR1: Messages alter/filter reality
RR2: Messages omit information

How does media literacy decrease youth smoking?

It is no secret that, in the US, our young people, and 9th graders in particular, are inundated with mass media messages. In fact, a recent study estimates that the average school-aged youth is exposed to mass media content (such as TV and movies) about 8 hours and 33 minutes each day. During childhood, kids spend more time watching the television than they do in school!

Even though media messages are everywhere, most youth are not really "literate" when it comes to media. They might "understand" a particular advertisement on a very surface level, but can they tell you exactly who was involved in making that message? Can they describe the target audience of the advertisement and explain why that particular audience is being targeted? Can they tell you what types of techniques are being used to sell the product? Can they describe what was omitted from the media message and how it was filtered out? In general, the answers to these questions are "no."

Tobacco and other substances advertise through mass media to promote their products. Specifically, smoking-related mass media messages — such as advertisements, promotions, and film images of smoking — present a biased and unrealistic picture of the consequences of smoking. They tend to present smoking as a habit that provides friends, money, success, happiness, and relief from stress, resulting in positive attitudes towards smoking. Even if adolescents believe that smoking is detrimental to their health, they may still retain attitudes that smoking can help them gain social and physical benefits. Thus, when it comes to smoking, the result of youth being exposed to messages without having the quot;literacy" to properly analyze and evaluate those messages turns out to be problematic. They end up very susceptible to the tactics of smoking advertisers.

We used to think that whether a kid decided to smoke or not had to do almost completely with personal factors (such as temperament, gender, and ethnicity) and social factors (such as whether their parents and friends smoke). Recent research has told us, though, that exposure to mass media may be even more important than those personal and social factors! Here are some examples:
  • Even when you take all factors into account, 52.2% of smoking initiation in youth is due to seeing smoking in movies.
  • Kids that see more advertisements and promotions are much more likely to smoke; up to 34% of smoking initiation is the result of advertising and promotions.
So, if they don't have the proper tools to analyze and evaluate mass media messages, kids are very susceptible to smoking messages.

Media literacy interventions, which examine the manipulative construction of tobacco industry messages and the salient omissions of those messages, will lead to a decreased belief in the validity of these implied effects of smoking. By learning to deconstruct advertisements, young people can avoid becoming susceptible to the tactics used by tobacco advertisers. Thus by learning about media literacy, students will develop a more negative attitudes toward smoking, a more negative sense of smoking norms, less intention to smoke and less smoking.

How does AD IT UP teach media literacy?

"AD IT UP" is a mnemonic that helps both teachers and students remember the core concepts of media literacy, and it is also the structure through which students will progress through the web-based curriculum. Each letter stands for a word that serves as a prompt for questions that students should be asking themselves when encountering any type of media messages. The list below show the relationship between each letter, the one word prompt, the questions it asks, and the associated media literacy core concept.

Table 2: The AD IT UP model
Related Question(s) to Ask & Associated Media Literacy Core Concept(s)
Who are the Author(s) of this message and why did they produce it?
Associated media literacy core concept(s):
AA1: Authors generally create media messages for money and/or power
Directed at
Who is this message Directed at and why?
Associated media literacy core concept(s):
AA2: Authors target specific audiences
What are the Ideas or values represented?
How would different people interpret these Ideas differently?

Associated media literacy core concept(s):
MM1: Messages convey values/ideas/feelings
MM2: Different people interpret media messages differently
What are the production Techniques used?
How are these Techniques likely to be effective?

Associated media literacy core concept(s):
MM3: Multiple production techniques are used
MM4: Media production techniques are successful at changing attitudes and behaviors
What is Unspoken or omitted from this message?
Associated media literacy core concept(s):
RR1: Messages alter/filter reality
RR2: Messages omit information
Put it together
Put everything we have learned together and analyze media messages!
Associated media literacy core concept(s):

What are the goals of the AD IT UP curriculum?
  1. Increase smoking media literacy in 9th grade students
  2. Improve understanding of true smoking norms in 9th grade students
  3. Increase anti-tobacco attitudes in 9th grade students
  4. Reduce smoking initiation among 9th grade students

Overview of Curriculum


Learning Objective(s)
  1. Recognize that each of us has been greatly influenced by media messages to associate certain concepts and ideas to letters and logos that do not have intrinsic meaning.
Students are given a brief introduction by two commentator characters to an alphabet based logo identification activity. This activity is designed to demonstrate that the ubiquitous presence of media messages have 'programmed' average consumers to identify the associated brands and products solely based on a single letter from their logos.

Description of Activity (Logo-Brand ID Quiz)
  1. Students are shown 26 logo-letter slides.
  2. Students select a logo and are asked to identify 3 logo-letters and associate it with the brand or product by typing in the brand or product name.
  3. Once correctly identified, a "secret" factoid is given about the brand and/or product.
Examples of Logos and factoids
The Adidas logo was created by Adi Dassler, the founder of Adidas. The three striped suggest a mountain, which represents challenges and goals.
The color pink represents femininity, innocence, softness and health. Pink is often used in logos related to spa, health care and cosmetic products.
Coca Cola
This logo was designed by Frank Robinson in 1986. He used script lettering from the 1800s which was the most popular script in the United States at the time.

(A complete list of all 26 logos is provided in appendix A)


Learning Objective(s)
  1. Understand that all media messages have an author and be able to apply this concept to other media messages
  2. Realize that authors generally create media messages for profit and/or power (media literacy core concept AA1). Specifically:
    • Tobacco companies primarily only care about financial gains
    • Tobacco companies are very powerful, even outside of the cigarette business
The Author module is designed to show students that certain individuals, generally motivated by profit and/or power, are responsible for the very carefully constructed media messages.

Description of Activity
  1. The students are asked to click on each of the three tobacco advertisements displayed to find out who is the individual responsible for each ad.
  2. After the ad is clicked, each image morphs into a tobacco executive's face.
  3. Captions provide details illustrating the profit and power (i.e. company, job title and salary) held by the individuals responsible for the ad.
Example of Author factoid
Daniel Delen
President, Chairman and CEO. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Brands: Camel, Kool, Winston, Salem, Doral, Lucky Strike
Salary: $3.5 Million
Factoid: RJR developed cigarettes with chocolate and vanilla tobacco flavorings to make them taste better and be more appealing to young smokers.

(A complete list of author factoids is provided in appendix B)

Directed At

Learning Objective(s)
  1. Realize that author marketers target specific audiences rather than creating campaigns focused on general audiences (media literacy core concept AA2). Specifically:
    • Certain cigarette brands are designed to appeal to younger people
    • Certain cigarette brands are designed to appeal to men
    • Certain cigarette brands are designed to appeal to women
    • Certain cigarette brands are designed to appeal to African Americans and other specific racial groups
  2. Discover how important the youth, male, female, and African American markets are to tobacco marketers.
The Directed At module allows students have an inside peek at the actual released original documents regarding targeting specific audiences groups from the tobacco industry. The module is designed to demonstrate that the media message authors are conscious, aware, and deliberate in delivering media messages to the intended target audience.

Activity Description:
  1. Students are shown 4 folders, one for each target market (youth, male, female and African American).
  2. Students are to examine the "secret" documents and to identify the incriminating statement that shows which group is being targeted. Then the students are instructed to drag highlighted statement to the corresponding target market folder.
  3. Once the statement is associated with the appropriate target group folder, true and false questions regarding the harmful effects of smoking on each target group are displayed.
  4. Students must answer the true and false questions correctly to complete the module.
Example of Secret Documents

Secret Document 1:
"Young Smokers: Prevalence, Trends, Implications and Related Demographic Trends"
Philip Morris U.S.A. Research Center Special Report March 31, 1981
Incriminating Quote: "Today's teenager is tomorrow's regular customer, and the overwhelming majority of smokers first begin to smoke in their teens."

True/False Questions:
This secret document shows that the tobacco industry is very interested in selling cigarettes to kids and teenagers. Which of these is true?
  1. Tobacco companies need to get kids and teenagers interested in smoking so they can replace older smokers who are dying?
  2. If people start smoking earlier, they are more likely to get addicted to it.
  3. It's not that hard to stop smoking if you really want to quit.
  1. TRUE. In their documents, the tobacco industry calls these young smokers "replacement smokers," since they are going to take the place of the dead people.
  2. TRUE. Tobacco companies know that teenagers are prime targets because their brains are still growing and developing. If they can get a young person to smoke just a few times, they'll usually be hooked.
  3. FALSE: People think they can stop smoking any time, but in fact they can't. Some medical studies show that nicotine (the drug in cigarettes) is stronger than drugs like cocaine and heroin.

    (A complete list of secret documents is provided in appendix C)

Learning Objective(s)
  1. Realize that media messages represent values/feelings/ideas that different people interpret differently (media literacy core concepts MM1 & MM2). For example: two people may see the same advertisement and have very different ideas about it.
  2. Being able to recognize that advertisements often link products to natural things that humans want, like love, good looks, and power, and be aware that these associations may not be intrinsic to the products themselves.
The Ideas module aims to highlight that many media messages are carefully designed to transmit ideas, values, and/or feelings that may have little direct association with the represented product or brand. The module provides students the opportunity to think as a media author and discover how corporations might utilize positive ideas to sell their brand or product. Students are invited to design a compelling ad for a fictitious acidic energy drink by utilizing feelings and images that appeal to specific target markets (e.g., children and teens, males, females, and African Americans).

Activity 1 Description: Association of feeling/values to product
  1. Students are shown three ads and a list of various values and feelings (e.g., happiness, beauty, strength, sadness).
  2. Students are instructed to identify three feelings or value words that best relate to each ad.
  3. After correctly identifying the value words to each ad, students are then asked to guess what product they think the ad is meant to promote.
  4. Once the product is appropriately identified, students are provided information about the actual products and the negative side effects that can occur from their use, which is not obvious from the advertisement.
Activity 2 Description: Designing an ad
  1. Students first choose a target market for their ad.
  2. Once a market is selected a factoid appears revealing typical approaches that are used in creating advertisements to attract this target group of consumers, and examples of advertisements demonstrating these approaches are shown.
  3. Students then select a feeling, idea or value they want to convey (e.g., fun and friendship, adventure and independence, etc.)
  4. Additional examples and supporting factoids are provided to illustrate how advertisements might convey these feelings.
  5. Students create a final advertisement for the fictitious drink by combing target markets and value words. Advertisements can be printed upon completion for future group discussion, if printers are available.

Learning Objective(s)
  1. Become aware that multiple media production techniques are used to focus attention (media literacy core concept MM3). These techniques include: lighting, logos, camera angle, fonts, facial expression, make up, clothing, props, and many more.
  2. Become aware that media production techniques are highly successful in changing audience attitudes, norms, and behavior (media literacy core concept MM4). In other words: People are influenced by advertising, TV and movies, whether they realize it or not.
  3. Notice that there are often hidden messages in cigarette ads and hidden ways that cigarette companies promote their product through TV and movie product placements.
  4. When people make movies and TV shows, every shot is very carefully planned. Realize that when people are shown smoking in movies, it's NOT just because that actor likes to smoke; these messages are placed very carefully by directors, producers, studios that have in the past been manipulated by the tobacco industry.
The Technique module aims to demonstrate that marketers have a great armory of tools to use in getting across the ideas they wish to promote. These media marketing techniques are generally very successful in swaying audiences' thinking and opinion.

Activity Description: Photo Shoot
  1. Students are shown a tough looking picture of Arnold Schwarzenegger on the cover of Muscle and Fitness magazine.
  2. Students are instructed to change Arnold's tough-guy image into a family-friendly one by using seven different media techniques (e.g., lighting, camera angles, props, colors).
  3. The final product is parallel to an actual cover of Esquire magazine, which featured Arnold running for governor.
  4. Both magazine covers are shown side by side and differences are compared and discussed.

Learning Objective(s)
  1. Become aware that media messages often offered an altered/filtered view of reality (media literacy core concept RR1). For example: most movies and TV shows that show people smoking make it look more attractive than it really is.
  2. Realize that advertisements usually leave out important information in order to present their ideas in a purely positive light (media literacy core concept RR2). For example: smoking ads are NOT up front about the risks of smoking. Specifically, cigarette ads often show green, natural, healthy scenes to make people forget about the health risks of cigarettes
  3. When you see a smoking ad, it's important to think about what was left out of the ad
Cartoon commentators introduce an activity that demonstrates to students that though the truth is often unspoken, it does not mean that the truth is unknowable. Students will learn that smoking is the leading cause of death and illness in the US. They will also learn about other important health and hygiene effects of smoking that are not shown in the media messages provided by the cigarette companies.

Activity Description: Bar Graph
  1. Students are presented with a sequence of bar graphs and sliders. They are asked to drag the sliders to the position that best represents their estimates of number of deaths caused by:
    1. AIDS
    2. Alcohol
    3. Drugs
    4. Homicide
    5. Motor vehicle accidents
    6. Smoking
    7. Suicide
  2. After student estimates are made, actual number of deaths for each cause is shown super imposed on the bar graphs. Commentators makes the following points:
    1. "The truth is that smoking kills more people than all these other things combined and doubled."
    2. "The truth is that not many people smoke — they just want us to think that lots of people smoke"
    3. "The truth is that smoke from other people's cigarettes kills more than AIDS and homicide combined."
  3. Commentators then discuss other things that are unspoken about cigarettes such as additives, actors being paid to smoke in movies and other health-related problems.
Commentators Dialogue: Ads and Unspoken Comparison
Commentators discuss the contrast between the beauty of the ads and the unspoken truth about the health effects of cigarettes. A number of advertisements and photos of actual health consequences from smoking are shown:
  1. A beautiful ad of __________ is shown. It is then contrasted with lung cancer caused by cigarette smoke. An image of cancer filled lung is shown to emphasize the white cancer patches caused by the black tar.
  2. A beautiful cigarette ad of _____ is shown. It is then contrasted with pictures of mouth cancer and an amputated foot. Commentator explains that parts of the foot had died due to shrinking blood vessels caused by the chemicals in cigarettes.
  3. A cigarette ad with a beautiful woman with smooth skin is shown. Commentators note that students have to imagine the truth about cigarettes effect on skin. Shrinking blood vessels caused by chemicals in cigarettes causes premature and excessive skin wrinkle.
  4. Final photograph of man with tracheotomy still smoking out of his tracheotomy opening.
Put it Together

In this final module students are given a tobacco ad and asked to use the skills they've learned to critique two separate ads. The final product can be printed out or sent to the teacher via email for further discussion.

Appendix A

Logos and Factoids
The three stripes in the Adidas logo resemble a mountain, which represents challenges and goals.
The color pink represents femininity, innocence, and softness and is often used in logos related to health care and cosmetic products.
Coca Cola:
This logo was designed by Frank Robinson in 1886. Robinson was the bookkeeper for Coke's inventor. He wrote the name in a style widely used in the 1800s for business and letter writing.
This logo is a stylized version of Walt Disney's signature. It creates a feeling of fun and cheerfulness.
This product was named to emphasize the fact that it contains real eggs.
The Ford name and oval was introduced in 1912. The logo is one of the most recognizable in the world. It was valued at over $25 billion in 2006.
The word "google" is a misspelling of the word "googol", the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros.
In its early days, HP's founders spun off a small company to build custom electronics. They chose "Dynec" so the original lower-case HP logo could be flipped upside down and become the "dy" logo for the new company.
This logo uses an angular, technical font to convey the "extremely advanced and up-to-date nature of its products." The stripes were added in 1972 to imply "speed and dynamism."
The food that became "America's favorite dessert" has had the same name since 1897. That's when the wife of a cough medicine maker helped him create the first pre-flavored packaged gelatin dessert.
The color red is commonly used in restaurants because it increases your body's metabolism and appetite.
The company name was created in 1934 and comes from a combination of the Danish words, "leg godt," or "play well." The current logo emphasizes playfulness and was adopted in 1973.
Taken from the last initial of the M&M company's founders' names, these chocolate candies became well known during World War II when they were given to soldiers to keep their chocolate rations from melting.
The N64 set new standards in realistic 3D gaming when it came out in 1996, hence the 3D effect of the logo.
There are many theories on how the Oreo got its name. One popular claim is that the original cookies were mound shaped so they named them "Oreo" which is Greek for mountain.
In 1999, Pepsi up-dated their logo to a new three-dimensional globe against a blue background, to show the global reach and worldly scope of the brand.
Q tip:
This is a dramatic simplification of a product name. The inventor of the Q-tip first called them "Baby Gays", then added "Q-tips". The company now says that Q stands for Quality.
The colors orange and yellow convey a feeling of high energy and happiness without being as harsh as red. Hershey used these colors to create positive associations for this candy, which hit the market in the 1920s.
Changing the top of the "S" in Starburst to a fat drop of juice reflects the brand's "fruit chew" identity, reinforced by the current U.S. slogan of "Isn't Life Juicy".
T mobile:
T-Mobile believes that the magenta color in its logo is so critical to its brand that it has trademarked the use of that color for advertising anything related to telephones.
The UPS shield looks like a coat of arms or police officer's badge and was chosen because the shield implies security and reliability. The brown color implies trust and is as recognizable as the shield.
Virgin's founder Richard Branson says that the "Virgin Scrawl" was quickly drawn by a graphic designer on the back of a napkin. Branson said, "That will do," and paid him 200 British Pounds.
Warner Brothers:
Since its creation in 1927, the Warner Brothers logo has undergone many changes. The one element that has remained constant is the shield. Many films have customized the shield for the look and theme of the film.
Xerox tries hard to keep its brand from being used as a verb meaning 'copying,' but various sources including the Oxford English Dictionary, already list it as one.
Founded in 1995, the name stands for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle." Founders David Filo and Jerry Yang say they liked the meaning of the word, which is "unsophisticated" and "uncouth".
The original company name "Z-Nith" was created in the early 1920s by corporation founders who derived the name from the call letters of their amateur radio station, 9ZN.

Appendix B

Author Factoids

Daniel Delen
President, Chairman and CEO
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Brands: Camel, Kool, Winston, Salem, Doral, Lucky Strike
Salary: $3.5 Million
Factoid: R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company developed cigarettes with chocolate and vanilla tobacco flavorings to make them taste better and be more appealing to young smokers.

James Tisch
President and CEO
Loews Corporation
Brands: Newport, Kent, Old Gold, Maverick, Satin
Salary: $3.4 Million
Factoid: Lorillard Tobacco Company produced and sold more than 12 billion Kent brand cigarettes with "Micronite" filters knowing that these filters contained asbestos which causes serious illness and lung disease. Loews Corporation owned Lorillard Tobacco Company until 2006.

Michael Szymanczyk
Chairman and CEO
Philip Morris USA Inc.
Brands: Marlboro, L&M, Parliament, Virginia Slims, Chesterfield
Salary: $12.5 million
Factoid: In 2003, Phillip Morris Companies, Inc. changed its name to Altria Group to try to separate itself from the negative stigma associated with selling tobacco products, gain credibility and "re-position" its image in consumers' minds.

Appendix C

Secret Documents

Secret Document 1
Philip Morris U.S.A. Research Center
Special Report
March 31, 1981

Report Title:
Young Smokers: Prevalence, Trends, Implications and Related Demographic Trends

Incriminating Quote:
"Today's teenager is tomorrow's regular customer, and the overwhelming majority of smokers first begin to smoke in their teens."

Secret Document 2
British-American Tobacco Company
Group Research and Development Center
November 11, 1976

Report Title:
The Smoking Behavior of Women
Report Number: RD1410

Incriminating Quote:
"Women are more neurotic than men and more likely to need to smoke in stressful situations, presumably because they are less well able to deal with stress."

Secret Document 3
Concept Development
June 21, 1988
Project Big Idea

Incriminating Quote:
"Our Camel guy, as a ladies man will feature some hysterically funny visuals, with roguish expressions from our boy guaranteed to lay waste the defense of any female. We'll see him give us a cool, smoldering, studly looks from point of purchase displays, end-aisles, direct mail, ads, etc."

Secret Document 4
NBC New at Sunrise
5:30-6:00 am EST
December 12, 1991

Segment Profile:
Cigarette advertising models with health problems speak in an interview with Ann Curry

Incriminating Quote:
"And we reserve the right to smoke for the young, the poor, the black, and the stupid"

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